On long-term use, dependence is now a recognized risk, and abuse, orally, intravenously and by "snorting" is a burgeoning world-wide concern. Estimates range from 5-20% depending on the severity criteria for "caseness" and the mode of detection.Nonetheless, the benzodiazepines are still regarded as useful drugs providing they are prescribed appropriately in the various indications, such as anxiety and insomnia, which tend to be chronic conditions. Generalized anxiety disorder is probably the commonest of these conditions, followed by panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia), and social phobia.They are also relatively safe to give to children for sedation before or after surgery.Chloral derivatives can, however, cause stomach irritation and rashes.This shift in chloride ions results in hyperpolarization (a less excitable state) and stabilization.Please see package insert for additional information and possible updates.This review will first list the benefits and risks of these drugs and then outline their uses. Acute stress reactions and anxiety symptoms as part of other psychiatric disorders or physical disorders are very commonly encountered.Finally, such usage will be set into treatment algorithms for anxiety and insomnia which also incorporate other forms of treatment. The benzodiazepines seem to be useful and powerful anxiolytic agents and are generally accepted as such, at least in short-term usage.
Some drugs contain diphenhydramine alone (such as Nytol, Sleep-Eez, and Sominex), while others contain combinations of diphenhydramine with pain relievers (such as Anacin P. Unfortunately, most of these drugs leave patients feeling drowsy the next day and may not be very effective in providing restful sleep.
Sedatives are drugs that decrease activity and have a calming, relaxing effect. The difference between sedatives and hypnotics, then, is usually the amount of the dose—lower doses have a calming effect and higher doses cause sleep.
Drugs used mainly to cause sleep are called hypnotics.
Elderly patients who need a sedative-hypnotic sometimes take chloral derivatives, which include chloral hydrate.
These drugs are less likely to cause restlessness in older patients who suffer from confusion or dementia .